Prepared in a doctoral school, the doctorate, or PhD, takes place over 3 or 4 years. Students learn how to do research work. The doctorate includes, in addition to thesis work, additional scientific, general, and professional development courses. This set of courses, lectures and seminars is intended to facilitate the professional integration of PhD students.
The final choice of a specialty is usually made upon entry into the 2nd year of the Master (M2). A subdivision of a major, a specialty emphasizes certain specificities of the course. It may be combined with research or a vocational course.